Not only does Schlegel criticize the exaggerated dependence on foreign literatures and the heterogeneous character of German theater, but he points out that "Germany does not have a single great capital, which would be the center of art and taste; where several theaters would exist in mutual competition and [ Literature would thus not only be national that is, German , but also determined and legitimated by a cultivated center.
Cultural homogenization and centralization were particularly evident in Spain during the eighteenth century, as Wlad Godzich and Nicholas Spadaccini demonstrated in their study of the institutionalization of literature. This contributed to "the conversion of a multi-cultural society into an increasingly mono-cultural one" The dialogic novel, for example, presented a great variety of discourses, but from an abstract point of view that "corresponded to no individual or collective interest in the society of the day" 14 but rather to a hegemonic perspective by which the state regulated heterogeneity.
The increasingly powerful state wanted to create a national culture which, as Godzich and Spadaccini pointed out, was necessarily seen as homogeneous. This explains the gradual disappearance of the dialogism of the previous age, the "progressive monologizing of the culture of this period" 17 , and the increasing marginalization of cultural practices not favored by the state. The ilustrados thus attempted to impose a minority aesthetic on the population. Literature, as well as that which is excluded from the institution, is thus not an absolutely autonomous category, regulated exclusively by its own internal laws, since the multiple forms of interaction between the literary institution and other social institutions limit the autonomy of the former, as sociologists of literature such as Dubois, Mouralis and Bourdieu have pointed out.
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But literature is also constituted, as the concept of para-literature indicates, in opposition to what it is not. It is thus in order to guarantee the identity of the framed thing that something else must essentially be excluded or classified as secondary, but always and only secondary with respect to the primary and identical thing. That means that the identity of the same is constituted by that which, for that reason, is called the "other," the outside, what does not belong [ non-propre ], the secondary, in short, its contrary, which does not have its own identity [ Furthermore, aesthetic judgement, according to Kant, is not based on a rule "as a determinable concept that could be used as a criterion for its validity.
It must therefore be based on a "constantly deferred consensus [ Our problematization of the literary institution should begin precisely at this point, by questioning the "consensus," the position and identity of those who decide, the various kinds of power play, and the resulting exclusions. The institutionalization of literature, which runs parallel to the constitution and consolidation of European nation states, is obviously not a phenomenon exclusive to that continent. But we should be beware of automatically transferring cognitive paradigms from one object of investigation to another, from the "center" to the "periphery," for example, since it is not self-evident that the institutionalization of literature proceeds in the same manner in an entirely different socio-historical context, such as in a formerly colonized non-European society that becomes politically independent.
The above-mentioned paradigm is especially problematic in the case of a multi-ethnic former settler colony composed of aboriginal peoples, "creolized" descendants of colonizers who embark upon a strategy of identity-construction and differentiation with respect to the European metropolis, and numerous ethnic groups resulting from massive immigration from countries other than those of the former colonial power, as is the case in the Americas.
Does the rejection of the colonizer and the search for new national models not inevitably entail a general questioning of the dynamic of domination, hegemony and the imposition of a monolithic culture, as well as a desire to fashion a new hybrid society?
I am not referring to a society that gains independence from its colonizer, expels the metropolitan power, and attempts to "recuperate" its identity in a quest for traditional ethnic origins, language and religion, which had been marginalized, repressed or even partially eradicated by the foreign power, but to a society composed of the descendants of the conquered as well as the conquerors, in addition to other immigrants.
A closer analysis of the "discourse of miscegenation," however, enables us to see it as a discourse implying multiple strategies, of which one of the most important is national or supra-national or continental identity-construction based on the creation of differences with respect to a colonial, excolonial or neocolonial Other European or North American. In fact, the expression "discourse of miscegenation" in the singular is somewhat misleading, since the themes of heterogeneity and hybridity are appropriated by several different discursive formations, each with its own cultural, ideological and stylistic peculiarities.
ALVARO MARTIN TORRES-CALDERON
There is no homogeneous discourse of miscegenation subject to specific regularities, comparable to legal discourse, for example, that is regulated syntactically, lexically and stylistically by the competent institution of a particular society. The appropriation of indigenous cultures as thematic material or marker of difference in a settler colony in the process of constituting a national identity is not specific to Latin America. An Indian who wants to speak! And at an indigenist convention! Since he is not officially registered at the conference, the indignous president is expelled.
Several years later, when the dominant ideology no longer permits the simple expulsion of native speakers from a convention in which they wish to participate because of their interests and professional function, the white delegates converse in highly erudite terms and use countless structuralist neologisms and concepts taken from the latest theories in their respective fields of specialization. An analogous situation characterizes the literary canon, legitimized in anthologies and canonized by analysis in literary histories.
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An illustrative example is an anthology entitled Literatura Hispanoamericana Spanish American Literature in two volumes, edited by Enrique Anderson Imbert and Eugenio Florit, and published in second edition. In their introduction, the volume editors give a brief outline of pre-Columbian cultural productions of which they include 7 pages of text in Spanish translation in the main body of the anthology, which has pages in the first volume alone , and explain that what was written in indigenous languages after the conquest "is outside the limits of this work.
This argument is somewhat contradictory in the case of an anthology which includes pre-Columbian artistic productions. If an anthology of "Spanish American Literature" excludes all literary productions not written in Spanish, it would at least be based on a coherent principle of exclusion based on linguistic criteria. Adatto, Emma, et Humphreys, G. Seattle Sephardim. En : Hispania, , XIX, pp. Agard, Frederick B.
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Alonso, Benito F. Moderna, Madrid, marzo Tomo , pp. Wagner : Caracteres generales del. Arditti, Elie S. Azevedo, J. Balschan, M. Heft I : Ueber den. Belovar, Fleischmann ? Baruch, Kalmi. Revista para la vida social y cultura, Viena, , 1, pp. Benardete, M. Madrid, Luria : A study of the Monastir. New York, En : El Hermanado. Benichou, Paul. Besso, Henry V. En : La Vara,. En : Hispania,. En : Jiwobleter, Blondheim, David S. Champion, Wagner : Caracteres generales. Bohmer, Edward.
Aus einem Briefe des Universitats-professors Dr. Edward Bohmer, Herausgeber der Romanischen Studien. Bonfante, Giulano. En : Collier's Encyclopedia,. New York, , VoL 12, p. En : Revista. Paul Benichou, p. Cirot, Georges. En : Bulletin hispanique,. Crews, Mrs.
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Tesis de doctorado presentada en la Universidad de Londres en junio de Cynthia, et Vinay, J. Danon, Abraham. En : Revue. Davids, W. En : Handelin- gen van het zesde Nederlandsche Philologencongres, Leiden, , pp. Djaen, Sabetay J. En : Judaica,. Sub voce : Ladino. Entwistle, William J. Je- wish-Spanish, pp. Farhi, Gentille. En : Hispanic Review, Lancaster, , V, pp. En : Revue hispanique, Paris, , 1, pp. Paris, ? Cfi Jewish Encyclopedia, New York,. Galante, Abraham.
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Le Caire, Karmona et Zara, , 12 pp. Accepted for publication. En Tinta expresa. May , Augustine, Florida. Translated presentations from English to Spanish including edition. Translated from English to Spanish including edition. Selection of Poems. UPNG, December Ximenez-Fatio House Museum. Tour guide manual I translated the history of the museum to be printing as part of the visiting documents for tourists.
The Beatles in a new work by David Cruz. Atlanta, Georgia. November , Campo y ciudad en Herencia de Clorinda Matto de Turner. Durham, North Carolina. October , Theatrical approaches and the new image of Peruvian identity in Solari Swayne's Collacocha. Georgia Perimeter College Feb. Poetry in Translation. April , Wake Forest University. North Carolina. March , Louisville, Kentucky.
November Freeport, Grand Bahamas. Kentucky Foreign Language Conference. Lexington, Kentucky. May Forthcoming Conference Presentations: None. November Secretary of Panel 2. November Attendee. Southern Polytecnic Univesity. Marietta, Georgia. Selection of poems. In Homenaje a la Amapola. Durham, NC. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. June 13, Guest lecturer and reader of his own poems. Claroscuro Guest speaker for The Year of Peru. Kennesaw State University.
November 3, Friday, March June 11, Transatlantic Studies Workshop. Valdosta University. Santander, Spain. Hoag Auditorium.
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April 16th, Guest speaker for the Jose Marti's Aniversary. Flagler College. Saint Augustine, Florida. February 1, Attended presentation of actor and film director Carlos Frey on Inmigration from Mexico.