It's a balancing act that may be helped along by these new products, but, as always, consumers will be the ones to make the final decision. Search x.
Just Add Sugar, ~The Sweetness of His Presence~ eBook by Deby Scott | | Booktopia
An article from. Brief New ingredients could reduce added sugars, but keep products sweet. Author By Cathy Siegner. Published Oct. Share it post share tweet. According to the Westchester, Illinois company, its Versasweet products have a lower percentage of monosaccharides and disaccharides. Kerry Taste and Nutrition has developed TasteSense, a natural flavoring solution designed to bring back sweetness that's lost when sugar is reduced, the company told Food Ingredients First.
Furthermore, suppliers may not want to overshare information, due to proprietary reasons, because there is the potential risk of formula information getting in the hands of competitors. Besides these issues, ingredient suppliers can also interpret the definition of added sugars differently. For example, a supplier may provide an ingredient that contains multiple components, such as honey, fruit juice concentrates, and fruit puree with intrinsic and added sugars.
There are significant difficulties calculating the added sugars in products subjected to fermentation, carmalization, and Maillard reactions.
FDA acknowledges these complications from these reactions and requested more information from manufacturers of such products. The FDA b does not have adequate data to assess the degradation themselves. Besides sugar loss during fermentation, sugars can also disappear during the baking process through caramelization and Maillard reactions, which cause the browning of the crust in bread Purlis Other fermented products, such as yogurts, are another example that may have potential challenges quantifying the amount of added sugars lost during fermentation.
The bacteria cultures required by the yogurt standard of identity, Lactobacillus, bulgaricus , and Streptococcus thermophilus , prefer the naturally occurring lactose in the milk during fermentation. However, S. Studies with fermented soymilk utilizing similar cultures as in dairy yogurt have confirmed this, showing that S. In addition to the required cultures, according to the yogurt standard identity, other optional cultures can be incorporated via the starter culture in the yogurt, such as Lb.
Both of these cultures are capable of metabolizing sucrose as well Nauth Without an analytical test to distinguish added sugars from those naturally occurring in food, manufacturers will not be able to discern where the sugar loss is occurring as result of these reactions. These chemical reactions depend on several variables, which are unique to each formula and process, and it would be impossible to come up with a standard equation that could be applied across each similar food product.
This example also highlights the impact of fermentation. Table 3 summarizes the interpretations and how different added sugars labeled values could be derived for the same product. Ingredients: cultured pasteurized soymilk , cane sugar , blueberries , pectin, calcium carbonate, elderberry juice concentrate for color , natural flavor. In this particular case, the manufacturer is receiving a sweetened plain soymilk with sucrose. According to the USDA database , an unsweetened plain soymilk naturally contains 1 g of sucrose per cup g. The serving size of the soy yogurt is 6 oz The formula assumptions of the finished product are listed in Table 4 , and the amount of sugar from each ingredient was determined by using the USDA database The amount of sugar lost as a result of fermentation was estimated to be 2 g Farnworth and others Sugar sucrose has several functional properties in food, which makes it challenging to replace.
No other sweetener has been developed to duplicate all of its functional properties. Thus, it is imperative to understand how the sugar is functioning in a particular food product before replacing it. However, because nutritive sweeteners are considered added sugars, more manufacturers will be looking at using nonnutritive sweeteners to replace sugar in their products. Sucrose is given an arbitrary sweetness level of 1 to allow its comparison with other sweeteners Table 5.
Given their intense sweetness, nonnutritive sweeteners are used in small amounts in food products, and as stated earlier, many are not completely metabolized by the body. Both of which explain why nonnutritive sweeteners do not provide calories like sugar. Because of their low usage levels, something else needs to replace the reminder of the missing sugar amount in the product, and this is where bulking agents or bulk sweeteners come into play.
This is similar technology that is utilized to replace fat in products. Fat, like sugar, provides bulk, mouthfeel, and texture to food products.
Without the use of bulking agents, food products would not be appealing to the consumer. For example, if sugar is removed from bran cereal, it would have the consistency of sawdust Varzakas and others Bulking agents can provide some sweetness but their primary function is providing bulk Wilson Table 6 lists some common bulking agents, and their relative sweetness is below that of sucrose with some even at 0. It is important to find bulking agents that can work synergistically with nonnutritive sweeteners.
Besides the lack of bulk, there are other functional issues that will need to be addressed when replacing sugar in food products. One of the key issues is taste. Nonnutritive sweeteners may have a bitter, metallic, and licorice aftertaste Varzakas and others These blends make use of sweetener synergy where the sweetness intensity of the blend is greater than the total sweetness of the individual components Wilson The use of flavor technology is another area that can be utilized to help address these undesirable aftertastes as the result of using nonnutritive sweeteners.
Other ingredients, which may be used when replacing sugar or fat in a product, include starches, modified starches, cellulose, guar gum, gelatin, and carrageenan. They are used to modify the physical properties of food, such as acting as a thickener, to help replace the structural characteristics that were originally contributed by sugar or fat. Thus, they are utilized for the same reasons as bulking agents to help improve the mouthfeel of the product.
However, these ingredients must be chosen carefully because they can affect the flavor and viscosity of the product. Some have shown to reduce the perceived sweetness of a product Spillane Thus, the sweetener blend may need to be modified, such as increasing the level.
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Others, such as cellulose, have caused the products to become too viscous with a gummy mouthfeel Varzakas and others Another consideration is whether the sugar is participating in any chemical reactions, such as the Maillard reaction in baked goods. In this case, the brown color as the result of this reaction is important to the finished product.
Some of the nonnutritive sweeteners may be capable of participating in the Maillard reaction but cannot produce the brown color due to their low usage levels Kitts Furthermore, all sweetness is lost if they do participate in the reaction Varzakas and others Therefore, it is important to select the right nonnutritive sweetener and a bulking agent that could participate in the reaction versus the sweetener. Finally, there is no known nonnutritive sweetener that can participate in caramelization Varzakas and others Replacing sugar in a product is a trial and error process given all the functional properties that sugar can contribute.
Each product formula is unique and one size does not fit all. For example, a study was done to evaluate the effects of fat and sugar replacements in cookies, and one of the combination ingredients was polydextrose as the fat mimetic and maltitol as the sugar substitute Zoulias and others The use of these ingredients resulted in very hard and brittle cookies, and the study concluded that the textural properties were improved by either decreasing the amount of alternative sweetener or increasing the concentration of fat mimetic in the gel which was added to the cookies.
The driving force of replacing added sugars in a product is to reduce the calories. However, in some cases, calorie reduction may be insignificant or may even increase. When sugar is removed, it generally must be replaced with something else, so that the bulk of the product is not affected. As stated earlier, this is why bulking agents are utilized. Isomaltulose is a prime example. Depending on the functionality needs in the product, using lower or noncaloric bulking agents may not be an option.
Thus, the total calorie content of the product was not significantly reduced, but it was essentially free of added sugars. Thus, the calorie reduction of the total product may be negated or even increased depending on how much of the fat is used in the product. This review demonstrated there is a strong and consistent inverse association between total sugars and total fat intakes expressed as percentage energy. Thus, multiple guidelines in regards to fat and sugar may be difficult to achieve in practice at the population level and may not result in the calorie reduction as intended.
Thus, the numbers and amount of food additives on the food label will increase, which will be viewed negatively by some consumers. Some of these ingredients are produced synthetically or via chemical modification. Even though honey consists mainly of sugars, it also provides vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants Varzakas and others , which may be regarded more positively compared to other sweeteners by some consumers. These consumers like that they understand what the ingredient is and where it is coming from.
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There may also be general public health concerns in regards to the food technology used to replace added sugars. Commonly used nonnutritive sweeteners to replace sugars are artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, acesulfame K, sucralose, and saccharin. There is a public perception that artificial sweeteners are unsafe to consume. This is mainly driven by animal studies conducted in the s that linked saccharin to cancer Intl. However, those studies used extremely high doses compared to what is normally consumed in the human diet, and several epidemiological studies since then have been carried out showing no link between cancer and saccharin consumption IFIC Yet, the public perception that artificial sweeteners can cause cancer still remains today.
Another health concern with the artificial sweetener aspartame is that it contains phenylalanine. Certain individuals with a genetic disorder lack the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase PAH to metabolize phenylalanine. This accumulation of phenylalanine, which is further converted to phenylpyruvate, can cause serious damage in brain development Varzakas and others As a result of this health risk, products that contain aspartame must have a warning label stating that it contains phenylalanine FDA 21 C.
Besides products with aspartame carrying a warning label, some products containing sugar alcohols also need one stating that excessive consumption can have a laxative effect FDA 21 C. Like fat, salt may also be increased in foods with reduced or replaced sugar contents. It has been known for some time that the additions of salt and sugar work synergistically to increase the intensity of sweetness Kilcast and Ridder Thus, it is a potential tool for manufacturers to increase salt in order to increase the sweetness of the product to compensate for the reduction of sugar.
The theory behind replacing added sugars is to reduce calories which, consequently, could lead to weight loss. Nonnutritive sweeteners can help achieve the similar sweetness characteristics as sweetened foods without adding calories. This could be related to the fact that calorie reduction in the total product is ultimately not reduced or that consumers use it as an excuse to ingest calories in other forms.
Yet, nonnutritive sweeteners in conjunction with bulking agents are the most effective strategies to replace added sugars in the food industry as of now. It is very unlikely that there will be many new sugar replacers developed over the next decade. The time and cost of development alone and the regulatory hurdles for new food ingredients will inhibit their speed to market Spillane Obesity is growing at an alarming rate in the United States, and added sugars are being targeted by governmental regulatory agencies in an attempt to reduce the calorie intake of the population.
Yet, it is not clear that the labeling of added sugars will benefit consumers. Consumers were shown 3 Nutrition Facts panels for the same food product.
In the Scientific Report of the Dietary Guidelines, food sources of added sugars were broken down by categories. In these types of beverage products, the current total sugars declaration reflects the amount of added sugars because virtually all the sugar is added. These categories also provide other nutrients besides added sugars, such as vitamin D, calcium, dietary fiber, B vitamins, whole grain, and iron. These included desserts, such as cakes, cookies, and chocolate, and these types of products may also have a challenge in labeling the exact amount of added sugars due to the Maillard and caramelization reactions.
However, one could reason that consumers understand and consume these types of products as indulgent treats in their diet. Thus, consumers are enjoying these types of products for pleasure and not for their nutritional value. The reason for excluding a DRV is that there is no sound scientific evidence for the establishment of a quantitative intake recommendation for which a DRV for added sugars can be derived FDA b. Policy decisions must be based on scientific evidence, and in the case of added sugars, the scientific evidence that decreasing added sugars intake will decrease the risk of obesity and other diseases is neither complete nor perfect.
As discussed earlier, the total amount of sugars would be the same as the amount of added sugars in these types of products. The etiology of obesity is complex, and confounding factors, such as total energy intake, BMI, sex, age, physical activity, ethnicity, and family culture can contribute to weight gain. Thus, focusing on a single nutrient, as in this case of added sugars, will not completely solve the obesity issue.
Even though the research is mixed, the overall consensus is that balancing total energy intake with calorie expenditure is the best approach to prevent weight gain Marriott and others ; Jebb Foods containing added sugars do not contribute to weight gain any more than another calorie source Van Baak and Astrup ; Gibson and others Labeling added sugars will result in additional costs for ingredient and food manufacturers.
A partnership between manufacturers and suppliers will be needed to ensure that the added sugars definition is interpreted consistently, so that the sources of added sugars are identified and reported correctly. Ultimately, this additional cost will be passed on to the consumer. The scientific evidence linking added sugars intake to obesity and other diseases is neither complete nor perfect. Not only can a spoonful of sugar help the medicine go down, but it can help fruits, vegetables and fiber go down as well.
Volume 14 , Issue 5. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Original Article Free Access. Kara R. Goldfein Dept. A Search for more papers by this author. Joanne L. Slavin Corresponding Author Dept. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation.
Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Avoiding too much sugar is an accepted dietary guidance throughout the world. Introduction The obesity epidemic in the United States has been a key public health issue due to the high rate of obesity and the increased healthcare cost associated with it.
Carbohydrates, Sugars, Added Sugars, and Sweeteners Sugars and carbohydrates The most commonly understood added sugar is sucrose or table sugar. And not all scientists agree with Lustig: a US study published last summer in the journal Diabetes Care suggested that fructose could have a positive role to play in the regulation of blood sugar in type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes.
In Australia, hundreds of thousands of people have successfully quit sugar. And once the decision is made, it can be stuck to. My weight stays the same and I eat and exercise normally not like a person on a diet. I am no more tempted to eat sugar again than a smoker who has successfully quit for 10 years would be tempted to light up again. Do you have routines around sugar consumption — for example, always having pudding, or needing a piece of chocolate to relax in front of the television?
If you are forced to go without sugar for 24 hours, do you develop headaches and mood swings? You feel like the sugar rush will get you through the hours. Then about eight years ago, I started to have serious health problems. I had an upset tummy all the time, I lost a lot of weight, and I really felt rotten.
The doctor diagnosed IBS irritable bowel syndrome and told me to eat more fibre. I then did a little extra self-diagnosis and had a stool test done, which revealed I had a Candida problem; this means bad pathogenic bacteria in my gut, which were feeding on the sugar I was eating. I started taking probiotics and stayed completely away from all types of sugar for a year, meaning no sweets or fizzy drinks and also no fruit for the first couple of months. I could feel the benefits of it reasonably quickly, and gradually I got better. From there it was a slippery slope, as one became three in a couple of days, and three became even more after that.
Personally, I do believe that sugar is a poison. But this has still not stopped me poisoning myself on a regular basis over the years. At the moment I am trying, once again, to stay clear. Read David Gillespie's tips on how to kick the sugar habit. Terms and Conditions. Style Book. Weather Forecast. Accessibility links Skip to article Skip to navigation. Friday 28 June Sweet poison: why sugar is ruining our health The average Briton consumes teaspoons of sugar each week - often without knowing it. But just how hard is it to go sugar free?
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